The Cape Indigene People Remembered
One way of celebrating Cape Indigene heritage is to spread an understanding of the terms and wonderful clan names of the indigenous groups. The more accurate – Khoe (singularly) is often spelt Khoi; and the more accurate – Khoena (plural) is sometimes spelt Quena, or Khoina or KhoenKhoen or KhoinKhoin or KhoiKhoi. The term Khoe or Khoi has the same meaning as the Nguni word Bantu – Both Khoena and Bantu simply means people. The anthropological term Khoisan is not an indigenous word per se, but was originally made up and introduced into usage by a German zoologist who dabbled in anthropology. Leonard Schultz participated in the genocide committed by the Germans against the Nama in the early years of the 20th century. He carried out experiments in the concentration camps and he sent 300 severed heads for further studies in Berlin. Schultz created the notion of a single Khoisan race and put forth that this was a hybrid race which were only part human. He believed that this self-created ‘ Khoisan race’ should be exterminated to ensure there was no ‘race’ contamination. Those who declare that they are a Khoisan Nation or Kingdom, with a King or Emperor are simply concocting falsehoods. Khoena and Xhosa herders and farmers; and the /Xam hunter-gatherers (Cape San) lived at the Cape at the time of first European contact with Southern Africa.
There are three branches of descendants of these southernmost indigenous people. The first branch are the few small surviving San and Cape Khoena clans recognised to be among 5 most marginalised indigenous groups today (also including the Nama, Korana and the Griqua). These are sometimes referred to as the ‘survivalists’.
The second branch are those amoung the people branded as ‘Coloured’ who can trace part of their ancestry to the San and the Khoena and San clans and express their desire to REVIVE this identity affinity. Around 30% of those classified as Coloured were recorded as Khoena and San at the time of the 1904 census – the last to record separate figures. They are sometimes referred to as the ‘revivalists’.
The third branch are people among the amaXhosa in particular (up to 17%) but also amoung other Sotho and Nguni speaking peoples (eg:Nelson Mandela) who along with others referred to as ‘Mixed-Other’ or ‘Coloured’ who also have significant Khoena and San bloodlines and heritage but wish to CELEBRATE their Khoena and San ancestry and culture along with other tributaries in their lineage from African-Asian slaves and other migrants of colour, to European non-conformists who assimilated into this African-creole Camissa society.
Heritage and identity in the Cape is complex and very important to many whose very sense of identity was raped and suppressed during the periods of colonialism and Apartheid and replaced by social engineering terminologies and constructs. Post Apartheid all now have the freedom to explore their heritage and identity for the first time in many generations.
Among the second and third branch there are a range of different ways in which people express their Khoena and San affinities and each of these expressions equally should be respected. Some wish to express themselves singularly as Khoena and San descendants and others wish to express their Khoena and San lineage along with that of other tributaries such as their slave ancestors or of other African Indigene ancesters as well. Both tendencies are legitimate expressions of identity and nobody should demand a singular outlook on matters of identity. All of these expressions are legitimate and should be respected.
While the term Khoena has been taken into the hearts of the descendent communities the original clan names are now more often used as people have gotten to know more about a heritage which had been suppressed for a long time.
The Southernmost tip of Africa was also home to the San people who were hunter gatherers who lived in small communities which had many settlements from Tanzania in the East right across to Angola in the West and down to the tip of Africa in the South. San bloodlines exist in almost all communities down the east coast of Africa from Kenya to the southern tip of the continent and back up the west coast to Angola.
The Europeans found both the Khoena and the Cape San (/Xam) to be living in the Cape District and Stellenbosch District. When the Europeans moved inland and started establishing the Swellendam District, Graaff Reinet District and Zuurveld District they also found integrated communities of Khoena and amaXhosa from as far South as Worcester and surrounds (Chainouqua territory) up and into the north eastern reaches of the South Western Cape.
Each of these expressions and the sense of identity expressed by those using the terms to identify themselves and their identities are not in conflict with each other. In the post-Apartheid era of discovery and healing as people explore and find new dimensions we grow and learn.
The Khoena group that the Europeans first interacted with were the maroon Khoena who called themselves the //Ammaqua or Watermans, who had moved away from tribal life and herding to almost permanently living by operating as traders and facilitators and servicemen to frequently passing ships. Other Khoena referred to the disparagingly as ‘Our kindred who had drifted away or expelled’ – Goringhaicona. This new trader-community settled strategically at the river mouth of the Camissa as guardians of the water. I refer these Camissa people who founded the city of Cape Town as the footprint community of all classified as Coloured. Camissa was embraced and Camissa embraced in return, all who some colonials would later refer to as “that black brood among us.” During the first Dutch-Khoena war, Jan van Riebeeck put a bounty on the heads of the (//Ammaqua) Watermans and exterminated all but Autshumao who had been incarcerated on Robben Island just before the war.
The Khoena clans which spread out throughout the Cape from Camissa in a Westerly and Easterly direction included the Goringhaiqua, Corachouqua, the Chainouqua, the Cochoqua, Chariguriqua, the Hessequa, the Attaqua, and the OuteNiqua Then there are a large number of Khoena peoples who were either part of the Xhosa or in confederal relationships with the Xhosa – these were the Inqua/Hamcumqua, the Gamtoos, the Gonaqua, and the Hoengeyqua. The Xhosa also had strong familial relationships right down to the Chainouqua. Many through oral histories, formal historical records, genealogy and DNA are discovering linkages with these old clans every day. These discoveries are a liberating experience celebrated with much joy. But there is very little understanding in broader South African society of just how deeply meaningful this knowledge and experience is for people who had been stripped of their African roots, particularly after the last great Khoena warriors Klaas Stuurman and Davis Stuurman led the last Khoena wars of resistance in the first two decades of the 19th century.